Where their ranges meet, the two canids compete due to near identical diets. Foxes ignore jackal scents or tracks in their territories, and avoid close physical proximity with jackals themselves. In areas where jackals become very abundant, the population of foxes decreases significantly, apparently because of competitive exclusion. Red foxes dominate raccoon dogs, sometimes killing their kits or biting adults to death.
Cases are known of foxes killing raccoon dogs entering their dens.
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Both species compete for mouse-like prey. This competition reaches a peak during early spring, when food is scarce. In Tartaria , red fox predation accounted for Red foxes may kill small mustelids like weasels ,  stone martens ,  pine martens , stoats , kolonoks , polecats and young sables. Eurasian badgers may live alongside red foxes in isolated sections of large burrows. Wolverines may kill red foxes, often while the latter are sleeping or near carrion. Foxes in turn may kill unattended young wolverines. Red foxes may compete with striped hyenas on large carcasses. Red foxes may give way to hyenas on unopened carcasses, as the latter's stronger jaws can easily tear open flesh that is too tough for foxes.
Foxes may harass hyenas, using their smaller size and greater speed to avoid the hyena's attacks. Sometimes, foxes seem to deliberately torment hyenas even when there is no food at stake.
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Some foxes may mistime their attacks, and are killed. In Eurasia, red foxes may be preyed upon by leopards , caracals and Eurasian lynxes. The lynxes chase red foxes into deep snow, where their longer legs and larger paws give them an advantage over foxes, especially when the depth of the snow exceeds one metre. They are absent in Iceland , the Arctic islands, some parts of Siberia , and in extreme deserts.
Red foxes are not present in New Zealand and are classed as a "prohibited new organism" under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act , preventing them from being imported. In Australia, estimates indicate that there are more than 7. A permanent fox population was not established on the island of Tasmania and it is widely held that they were outcompeted by the Tasmanian devil. It is generally less common in areas where the dingo is more prevalent, however it has, primarily through its burrowing behaviour, achieved niche differentiation with both the feral dog and the feral cat.
As such it has become one of the continent's most invasive species. The red fox has been implicated in the extinction and decline of several native Australian species, particularly those of the family Potoroidae including the desert rat-kangaroo. Local eradication programs exist, although eradication has proven difficult due to the denning behaviour and nocturnal hunting, so the focus is on management with the introduction of state bounties. The origin of the Sardinian ichnusae subspecies is uncertain, as it is absent from Pleistocene deposits in their current homeland. It is possible it originated during the Neolithic following its introduction to the island by humans.
It is likely then that Sardinian fox populations stem from repeated introductions of animals from different localities in the Mediterranean. This latter theory may explain the subspecies' phenotypic diversity. Red foxes are the most important rabies vector in Europe. In London , arthritis is not uncommon in foxes, being particularly frequent in the spine.
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They may also fall ill from listeriosis and spirochetosis , as well as acting as vectors in spreading erysipelas , brucellosis and tick-borne encephalitis. A mysterious fatal disease near Lake Sartlan in the Novosibirsk Oblast was noted among local red foxes, but the cause was undetermined. The possibility was considered that it was caused by an acute form of encephalomyelitis , which was first observed in captive bred silver foxes.
Individual cases of foxes infected with Yersinia pestis are known. Red foxes are not readily prone to infestation with fleas. Species like Spilopsyllus cuniculi are probably only caught from the fox's prey species, while others like Archaeopsylla erinacei are caught whilst travelling. Fleas that feed on red foxes include Pulex irritans , Ctenocephalides canis and Paraceras melis. Ticks such as Ixodes ricinus and I. The louse Trichodectes vulpis specifically targets foxes, but is found infrequently.
The mite Sarcoptes scabiei is the most important cause of mange in red foxes. It causes extensive hair loss, starting from the base of the tail and hindfeet, then the rump before moving on to the rest of the body. In the epizootic phase of the disease, it usually takes foxes four months to die after infection. Other endoparasites include Demodex folliculorum , Notoderes , Otodectes cynotis which is frequently found in the ear canal , Linguatula serrata which infects the nasal passages and ringworms.
Up to 60 helminth species are known to infect foxes in fur farms , while 20 are known in the wild. Several coccidian species of the genera Isospora and Eimeria are also known to infect them. Capillaria plica infect the fox's bladder. Trichinella spiralis rarely affects them. The most common tapeworm species in foxes are Taenia spiralis and T.
Others include Echinococcus granulosus and E. Eleven trematode species infect red foxes,  including Metorchis conjunctus. Red foxes feature prominently in the folklore and mythology of human cultures with which they are sympatric. In Greek mythology , the Teumessian fox  or Cadmean vixen, was a gigantic fox that was destined never to be caught.
The fox was one of the children of Echidna. In Celtic mythology , the red fox is a symbolic animal. In the Cotswolds , witches were thought to take the shape of foxes to steal butter from their neighbours. He originally appeared then under the name of "Reinardus" as a secondary character in the poem " Ysengrimus ". Many of Reynard's adventures may stem from actual observations on fox behaviour; he is an enemy of the wolf and has a fondness for blackberries and grapes.
Chinese folk tales tell of fox-spirits called huli jing that may have up to nine tails, or kumiho as they are known in Korea. Foremost among these is the ability to assume human form. While some folktales speak of kitsune employing this ability to trick others, other stories portray them as faithful guardians, friends, lovers, and wives. The cunning Fox is commonly found in Native American mythology , where it is portrayed as an almost constant companion to Coyote. Fox, however, is a deceitful companion that often steals Coyote's food. In the Achomawi creation myth , Fox and Coyote are the co-creators of the world, that leave just before the arrival of humans.
The Yurok tribe believed that Fox, in anger, captured the sun , and tied him to a hill, causing him to burn a great hole in the ground. An Inuit story tells of how Fox, portrayed as a beautiful woman, tricks a hunter into marrying her, only to resume her true form and leave after he offends her. A Menominee story tells of how Fox is an untrustworthy friend to the Wolf. Xenophon , who viewed hunting as part of a cultured man's education, advocated the killing of foxes as pests, as they distracted hounds from hares.
During the Dark Ages in Europe, foxes were considered secondary quarries, but gradually grew in importance. Cnut the Great reclassed foxes as Beasts of the Chase, a lower category of quarry than Beasts of Venery. Foxes were gradually hunted less as vermin and more as Beasts of the Chase, to the point that by the late s, Edward I had a royal pack of foxhounds and a specialised fox huntsman. In this period, foxes were increasingly hunted above ground with hounds, rather than underground with terriers. By the Renaissance , fox hunting became a traditional sport of the nobility. After the English Civil War caused a drop in deer populations, fox hunting grew in popularity.
By the mids, Britain was divided into fox hunting territories, with the first fox hunting clubs being formed the first was the Charlton Hunt Club in The popularity of fox hunting in Britain reached a peak during the s. The grays furnished more fun, the reds more excitement.
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The grays did not run so far, but usually kept near home, going in a circuit of six or eight. The capture of a gray was what men boasted of; a chase after 'an old red' was what they 'yarned' about. Red foxes are still widely persecuted as pests, with human-caused deaths among the highest causes of mortality in the species. Annual fox kills are: UK 21,—25, ; Germany , — ; Austria 58, — ; Sweden 58, — ; Finland 56, — ; Denmark 50, — ; Switzerland 34, ; Norway 17, — ; Saskatchewan Canada 2, — ; Nova Scotia Canada — ; Minnesota US 4,—8, average annual trapping harvest — ;  New Mexico US 69 — Red foxes are among the most important furbearing animals harvested by the fur trade.
Their pelts are used for trimmings , scarfs , muffs , jackets and coats. They are principally used as trimming for both cloth coats and fur garments, including evening wraps. However, this amount is overshadowed by the total number of fox pelts used for trimming purposes. North American red foxes, particularly those of northern Alaska, are the most valued for their fur, as they have guard hairs of a silky texture, which, after dressing, allow the wearer unrestricted mobility. Red foxes living in southern Alaska's coastal areas and the Aleutian Islands are an exception, as they have extremely coarse pelts that rarely exceed one-third of the price of their northern Alaskan cousins.
1nsp.com.ua/images/mckinney/1013-site-de-rencontre.php The only exceptions are the Nordic and Far Eastern Russian peltries, but they are still inferior to North American peltries in terms of silkiness. Red foxes may on occasion prey on lambs. Usually, lambs targeted by foxes tend to be physically weakened specimens, but not invariably.
Lambs belonging to small breeds, such as Blackface , are more vulnerable than larger breeds such as Merino. Twins may be more vulnerable to foxes than singlets, as ewes cannot effectively defend both simultaneously. Crossbreeding small, upland ewes with larger, lowland rams can cause difficult and prolonged labour for ewes due to the heaviness of the resulting offspring, thus making the lambs more at risk to fox predation.
Lambs born from gimmers ewes breeding for the first time are more often killed by foxes than those of experienced mothers, who stick closer to their young.
Red foxes may prey on domestic rabbits and guinea pigs if they are kept in open runs or are allowed to range freely in gardens.