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Tokyo Bay Aqua-Line
Website keiseibus. Keisei bus Tokyo Shuttle. Ticket counter in Narita Airport. Want to know more about travelling around Japan Rome2rio's Travel Guide series provide vital information for the global traveller. Related travel guides. Surface sediment specimens were sampled from a boat using an Ekman-Birge bottom sampler. Then, on the boat, after the sediments were collected, the material was inserted into an acrylic pipe with a diameter of 5 cm and length of 10 cm to obtain samples a top 5 cm sediment.
Most of soil and sediment samples consisted of silt and sand with a particle size of 2 mm or less. However, more pebbles, plant pieces, shell fragments, etc. Grain size sorting by sieve was not done. The dried samples were pulverized in an agate mortar, and then the radioactivity of the samples was measured.
Tokyo Bay Aqua-Line
Water samples were obtained from the surface of the water by lowering buckets from boats. Divers obtained bottom water from about 1 m above the seabed. Without filtering suspended materials out of the water, the radiocesium in 20 L of sample water was concentrated using an ammonium phosphomolybdate AMP method [ 25 ]. After standing overnight, the AMP precipitate was filtrated and collected on a membrane filter pore size 0.
In this way, it was confirmed in a preliminary experiment that the ionic and suspended radiocesium in the sample water can be recovered quantitatively. A Cs solution with known concentration was used to correct the sum peak effect for Cs counting. The detection limits of Cs and Cs under appropriate conditions were 0.
Radiocesium activity was indicated by the values per sampling day, but was corrected for radioactive decay to the value on March 16, , as necessary. Sample measured were made from cellulose powder pressed into 4 cm diameter aluminum ring 0. The correction of matrix effect was achieved by X-ray intensity ratio of peak to back ground for each element [ 27 ]. Mercury in the sediments was measured via a heating-vaporization atomic absorption spectrometry Hiranuma, HG The particle size distribution of the wet sediment samples was measured using a laser diffractometer Shimadzu, SALD with a measurement range of particle size 0.
Dispersion of sedimentary particles was carried out via ultrasonic irradiation Shimadzu, SUS, 42 kHz using sodium hexametaphosphate as a dispersant. In this paper, the particle size obtained is presented as the volume-based average particle diameter. All measured values obtained in this study are shown in S1 — S4 Tables of the supporting information file. Geographic coordinates of sampling points are also shown in S5 Table. Sampling was done on different days; hence, the radiocesium activities are shown after the radioactive decay correction based on the value of March 16, A plurality of measured values collected at different times were subjected to statistical processing.
The deviation of the weighted average approximated according to the law of uncertainty propagation. Sediment samples were collected from August 20, , to July 12, The value of activity is shown as an average of the values from the surface to 5 cm depth. When there are multiple data at the same point, the activity is expressed as a weighted average value for the counting error. Both are lower activities than that of the Old-Edogawa estuary X. We inferred the inventory and flux of radiocesium accumulation in Tokyo Bay sediment from the catchment basin owing to the FDNPP accident for the five years studied.
The vertical distribution of radiocesium in Tokyo Bay sediment was investigated via the core samples. This suggests that the radiocesium in the river was rapidly deposited on the sediment in the river mouth and only slightly diffused to the center of the bay. Because a large amount of flood materials flowed into Tokyo Bay owing to the Kanto-Tohoku heavy rainfall event from September 9 to 11, , the radiocesium was buried to a much deep layer.
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As shown in Fig 4 Red circle and S1 Fig , sediment with a relatively low deposition density was accumulated in the 8 to 22 cm layer of the Point D core collected in November after this flood. It is shown that sedimentary materials with high water content and low apparent density are deposited in the estuary area during flooding [ 31 ]. Furthermore, It is suggested that the concentration peak of radiocesium about five years after the accident is buried while being retained in the sediment.
A large amount of suspended materials flowed in owing to the Kanto-Tohoku heavy rainfall event from September 9 to 11, and was deposited in the Old-Edogawa estuary. The red circle in the core collected on November 13, shows the flood sedimentary layer that flowed in due to the flood. It was assumed that radiocesium flows into Tokyo Bay through the rivers.
The results are shown in Table 2. This conforms to the radiocesium distribution in the sediments of these points.
This means that the radiocesium flowed into Tokyo Bay via river water. Therefore, it considered that the radiocesium-contaminated area in upstream Tonegawa is not an important radiocesium source supplying Tokyo Bay. The Matsudo Weir is installed about m downstream from Point S1 and is normally closed to adjust the flow rate of the Sakagawa water. This means that contaminated suspended materials flowing down from the Sakagawa catchment basin is deposited at the point where the flow velocity is low. However, this weir was opened during the Kanto-Tohoku heavy rainfall event from September 9 to 11, [ 33 , 34 ], and the sediment deposited upstream of the weir flowed out into the confluence with Edogawa.
If it is presumed that the 38 to 40 cm layer in which Cs was detected is the layer was deposited immediately after the accident, the rate of deposition of this sediment is 1. Thus, the sediment layer deposited in October , when decontamination work started in Kashiwa City [ 35 ], which is in the catchment basin of Sakagawa, is the sediment layer from 32 to 34 cm.
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This decontamination work was completed in December , which corresponds to the layer from 14 to 16 cm. Some of the decontamination wastewater that does not receive treatment flows into Sakagawa, and it is highly likely that this contaminated sludge was deposited at Point S1. In a core sampled at the same point on November 13, , three months after the Kanto-Tohoku heavy rainfall event, the high contamination sediment layer had disappeared, but new contaminated sediment had been deposited Fig 5B.
The sedimentation rate at Point S1 after the flood was 2. Another core sampled in July showed a sedimentation rate of 2. This implies that contaminated soil has been flowing constantly into Sakagawa from the high contamination zone around Kashiwa, and thus is a supply source of radiocesium that has accumulated in the Old-Edogawa estuary in Tokyo Bay.
The core samples were collected on a April 29, ; b November 13, ; and c June 25, When the weir was opened because of the Kanto-Tohoku heavy rainfall event. A large proportion of the contaminated sediment deposited at Point S1 flowed out.
As shown in Fig 2 , the radiocesium activity of the sediments in the Sakagawa, Edogawa and Old-Edogawa rivers is higher than that in the Edogawa upstream. Furthermore, it is suggested from Fig 5 that contaminated soils flowing in Sakagawa from the high contaminated zone around Kashiwa City are being transported to Tokyo Bay through these rivers.
In other words, the origin of radiocesium contamination in Tokyo Bay is polluted soil in the high contaminated zone, and it can be thought that the Edogawa water system plays an important role in its transportation. The estimated flux immediately after the accident was about 1.
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Fig 6 also shows the flux estimated for each the sampling period of each sediment core, and the flux decay corrected based on the value of March 16, Compared with the water samples, the radiocesium activity in the present soil and sediment samples before the FDNPP accident is extremely low; therefore, we did not consider the background in this study. Precipitation of the global fallout Cs from the atmosphere was 6.
The inventory of the global fallout Cs in the sediment of central Tokyo Bay was presumed from 0. However, it is possible these values are underestimates, as the cores were too short. The global fallout Cs in the initial stage probably was not measured. On the other hand, we also found a record of the global fallout Cs in the core collected from Points 36 and J in the center of Tokyo Bay.
The inventories were 0. The results are shown in Fig 7 S9 Table. In both the surface and in the contaminated layers, the maximum values appeared at the end of , about two years after the accident. The flux was 0. This suggests that, even now, radiocesium continues to constantly flow into Tokyo Bay.